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ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

BIOGRAPHY OF MINNESOTA

HISTORY OF MINNESOTA

BY

»■

JUDGE CHARLES E. FLANDRAU

VOLUME I

ILLUSTRATED WITH .ittccl ^Tliitc unit Cloppcv "iTliitc tinpvHiHiitis

CHICAGO

THE CENTURY PUBLISHING AND ENGRAVING COMPANY

1900

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£S(o

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MWl V G

June 4 , 1901.

Mr. R. Thwaltesf

Madison* wlsconslnt

Doar Slr:-

Your esteemed favor of the 3rd at hand and contents noted, . Please accept thanks for the Information and suggestions given us. Referring to the lettering of "Vol. I" on the volume of Minnesota Mography, win say that this was done as a precautionary measure In case we might want to Issue another volume In the course of eight or ten years. This volume Is complete In Itself, and should another volume he Issued at any future time, the price wlll.be the same - Though we have never furnished the volumes of Bench and Bar of Ohio

Michigan to any library at such low prices, still, we consider that It would be an advantage. to have then In your library. We accordingly-.

5

make the prices as you propose, and enclose bill herewith.

Yours very truly,

THE CENTUM PUBLISHING fcEJGfoVHK CO.

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geflicatiou

TO THE OLD SETTLERS OF MINNESOTA

WHO SO WISELY LAID THE FOUNDATION OF OUR STATE UPON THE BROAD AND ENDURING BASIS OF FREEDOM AND TOLERATION, THIS HISTORY IS MOST GRATEFULLY AND AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED BY THE AUTHOR

Charles E. Flandrau

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PREFACE.

Many books of the character and general design of the present volume have been given to the public as embodying the history of certain States and sections of the Union, through the medium of biographies and portraits of their representative men; but this work differs essentially from them all, in that, while it contains the usual features of biography and portraiture, it is also accompanied by a succinct, accurate, interesting and readable history of Minnesota, pre- pared by one of the oldest and most experienced citizens of the State. Judge Flandrau, the author of this history, has participated in every important event which has occurred in Minnesota since its organiza- tion as a Territory in 1849, and recounts in a colloquial and pleasing style, his personal recollections and knowledge of the growth and progress of the State. Tins history will be read by thousands, where a more pretentious and voluminous record would be eschewed as too laborious an undertaking.

The State of Minnesota is quite a youthful member of the Union, its history compassing but half a century; yet its marvelous growth in all the elements that make for substantial worth and greatness, has been phenomenal, and entitles it to a prominent niche in the gallery of the sisterhood.

Besides the history, the work contains the biographies of many of the prominent citizens of the State, with their portraits. We feel justified in saying that the workmanship and art bestowed on these portraits, is of superior excellence, both in the engraving and the perfection of the resemblance to the subjects portrayed, while the biographical sketches are authentic. It has been the aim of the pub- lishers throughout, to include in the list only those who have, by their ability, industry and courage, contributed to the building of the State to its present eminence. Many have been omitted, who are, no doubt, entitled to a place on the roll of honor, their great number making it impracticable to include them all in one volume. These omissions may, however, be remedied in a subsequent volume.

In presenting to the public this Encyclopaedia of Biography of Minnesota, with its accompanying history, the publishers believe they have made a valuable contribution to the history and literature of the State, and acknowledge their thanks for the aid and support which they have received from their patrons and the people of Minnesota generalh-, in the preparation of this work.

THE PUBLISHERS.

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CONTENTS OF HISTORY

CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED.

Opening Statement 7

Legendary and Aboriginal Era 8

Fort Snelling 13

Selkirk Settlement 14

George Catlin l6

Featherstonhaugh 17

Schoolcraft ; Source of Mississippi 17

Elevation* in Minnesota. .. 18

Nicollet 18

Mi«inn< Ifi

Indiana 21

Territorial Period 24

P duration 26

First Territorial Government a8

Courts ap

First Territorial Legislature 30

Immigration 32

The Panic of 1857 34

Land Title. 3S

The First Newspaper 35

P-^nks 36

The Fur Trade XI

Pemmican 39.

Transportation and Express 40

Lumber - . 4J

Religion 4'

Railroads 44

The First Railroad Actually Built 48

The Spirit Lake Massacre 40

The Constitutional Convention «

Attempt to Remove the Capital 54

Census SS

Grasshoppers 35

Militia 56

The Wright County War 57

The Civil War 57

The Third Regiment. . , .. . 60

The Indian War of 1862 and Following Years, ... 63

The Attack on Fort Ridgely 68

Battle of New Ulm 69

Battle of Birch Coulic 72

Occurrences in Meeker County and Vicimtv 7\

Protection of the Southern Frontier 74

Colonel Sibley Moves upon the Enemy 76

Put

Battle of Wood Lake 77

Fort Abercrombie 78

Camp Release 79

Trial of the Indians 79

Execution of 38 Condemned Indians 81

The Campaign of 1863 82

Battle of Big Mound 83

Battle of Dead Buffalo Lake 83

Battle of Stony Lake 84

Campaign of 1864 85

A Long Period of Peace and Prosperity 87

Introduction of New Process of Milling Wheat 87

The Discovery of Iron 88

Commerce Through St. Mary's Falls Canal 89

Agriculture 00

Dairying 00

University of Minnesota and Its School of Agri- culture 91

The Minnesota State Agricultural Society 02

The Minnesota Soldiers' Home 93

Other State Institutions 93

Minnesota Institute for Defectives 94

State School for Dependent and Neglected Chil- dren 94

The Minnesota State Training School 95

The Minnesota State Reformatory 95

The Minnesota State Prison 95

The Minnesota Historical Society 96

State Institutions Miscellaneous in Character 06

State Finances 97

The Monetary and Business Flurry of 1873 and

Panic of 1893 97

Minor Happenings 99

The War with Spain 100

The Indian Battle of Leech Lake 102

Population 104

The State Flag 105

The Official Flower of the State, and the Method

of Its Selection 106

Origin of the Name "Gopher State" 107

State Parks. ... 109

Politics no

Books Which Have Been Pi«KHshed Relating to Minnesota

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INDEX TO BIOGRAPHIES.

p»i.

438

... 251

... 416

4°3

... 372

Constans. William.

s 4_i6

446

«5

... 2SA

477

.... 20S

.. -W6

438

... 186

475

... 318

.... 451

.... *36

... 417

4.W

.... .84

487

.... 487

*T7

.... <88

»37

Blodcctt, Elijah H

.... 30S

^

240

•• «I

*"

*47

*

Brewster, Henry W

........ . 366

Eri!l. Hascal R

.... AA3

Faribault. Ale.\2ndeT

TTTM'1T"T"T"«,f 4 >4

. . . . i(>j

473

.... 460

'87

.... 2.W

«o

Butler, Pierce ...........

. . .. *8l

477

.... 967

Catteun. Frank H

.t , ?P7

Gilfillsn. Charles D

Cash. Daniel G

.... 379

.... 233

*3

Clapp, Moses E

.... 250

3.TO

4

INDEX TO BIOGRAPHIES.

Page

Grant, Donald 447

Graves, Charles H 274

Grimshaw, William H 374

Grover, Marcus D 31*

Halden. Odin 4JS

Hawkins, Henry H ii6

Hill, Ansel L 441

Hill. James J -m

Hodgroan, Jesse M 3§fi

Hodgson, William 4JZ

Hortoo, Charles 3*3

Horton, Hiram T 3i?

How, Jared 440

Hubbard, Lucius F 214

Hubbard, Rensselaer D 287.

Hutchinson, Henry 321

Ireland, John Ui

Kelly. Anthony 1&

Kelly, Patrick H ?z6

Kelly. William L 4S2

Kemp ton, Edward S ?Zi

King. i5olliajn S 433

Kingsley. Nathan C 39Z

Koon, Martin B !SS

Koop. John H 3j3

Kron, Frederick 3^

Laird, William H 423

Lamberton. Henry W 3?2

Lawler, Daniel W I&»

> Lind, John LiZ

'Lindeke. William 412

Lindsay, Thomas B 32°.

Lowry, Thomas «8j

Lowry, William D 4ZS

Lugger, Otto 124

Magic, William H 352

Mann, Eugene L

Martin, John 349

.Mathews. John A 411

McGill, Andrew R ago

McKinstry, Archibald W 32a

McKnight, Sumner T 359

Meagher. John F

Mendcnhall, Luther 373 '

Mcrriam, William R M

Mitchell, Edward C 253

Mitchell. Henry 2 393

Mitchell, William UZ

Mitchell, William B 3fiS

Monfort, Dilos A 224

Montgomery, Thomas 337

Morin, William 463

Morrison, Clinton 1&1

Morrison, Dorilas 176

Morrison, Daniel A 304.

Molt, Rodney A 4C1

Munger, Roger S a6o

Myrick, Nathan 3&j

Pat*

Nelson, Benjamin F 37 r.

Nelson, Knute 4jrj

Nelson. Rensselaer R j6j

Niles. John H, ±£

Northrop, Cyrus ' tq6

Noyes. Charles P

Noyes, Daniel R 130

Noycs, Jonathan L 439

Nye, Frank M j;i

O'Brien, Thomas D 4S3

O'Connor, Richard T ;Sj

Odelt, Robert R 356

Ogden, Benjamin H 350

Palmer, George M j6t

Patterson, Robert H 7^7

Paulle, Leonard 3^3

Pearey, Frank H 219

Pendergast. William W 431

Peyton, Hamilton M 271

Pillsbury, Charles A 2011

Pillsbury, Fred C 261

Pillsbury, George A 15a

Pillsbury, John S....* up

Pillsbury. Mahala F

Poole, Charles A 468

Ramsey. Alexander .- jjfi

Reed, Robert 45^

Reynolds, Reuben yoo

Rice. Henry M 364

Richardson, Henry M 2^2

Richter, Edward W 419

'Roberts. Harlan P 378

Robertson, Daniel A 4^

Rosing, Leonard A 443

Ruble, George S 4_u

Sanborn, John B ,_. ifc

Sanborn. Walter H 173

Sargent. George B 17S

Sargent, William C 3 m

Sawyer, Edward 191

Schaller, Albert jjj

Schurmeier, Theodore L 441

Searle, Dolson B 368

Sell wood, Joseph 353

Severance, Cordenio A 410

Severance, Martin J 336

Shaw, John M T40

Shaw, Thomas

Sheehan, Timothy J £jj

Sheffield. Benjamin B j6j

Sheffield, Milledge B .'...• 4S5

Sliepard, David C 34ji

Sherwood, George W 307

Sherwood. WiMiain C 35.-

Shevlin, Thomas H 3^

Shoemaker, James l~r

Sibley. Kenry H. . 464.

Simpson, TK*#a*J i§i

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INDEX TO BIOGRAPHIES.

Smith, Charles A

Smith, George M

Smith. Hansen

Smith, James

Smith, Peter B

Smith, Robert A..... Stanford. Mortimer H Start, Charles U

Stevens, John H 484

Stickney. Alpheus B 383

Stockton, Albert W 461

Stone. George C 340

Tawney, James A 132

Thompson. Joseph H 341

Todd. William E 449

Towne. Charles A 406

Towne, Edward P 354^

U inland. George F 34J

Upham, Henry P 438

Valentine, Daniel H 292

Van Cleve, Charlotte 0 4jJ3

Vanderburgh. Charles E 108

Ward, William G 4Z2

Washburn, Cadwallader C 167

Washburn, Christopher C ." 310

Washburn, Jed L 314

Washburn. William D I3£

P.ge

3Z2

444

su

MA 262 436 430

Watkins, Joseph R Webber, Charles C Webber, Marshall B Wedge, Albert C Welles, Henry T Werner. Nils O.. West, John K... Weyerhaeuser, Frederick Wheeler. John B Wheelock, Joseph A Whipple, Henry B Willard. John A.. Willcuts. Levi M Williston. William C Willson. Charles C Wilson Horace B Wilson, Hudson.. Wilson, George P Wilson. Thomas.. Windom, William Windom, William L Woodmansee, Benjamin D

Wise, John C

Young, George B Young. Henry A Zimmerman, Charles A

HISTORY OF MINNESOTA

BY

JUDGE CHARLES E. FLANDRAU.

As the purpose of this volume is to record the biographies of the men who have distin guished themselves in one way and another in building the State of Minnesota, it was deemed in harmony with the general subject to pre mise the same with a compendious history of the State, the duty of preparing which I ac- cepted with many misgivings as to my titness or ability to do justice to such an undertaking. I have decided to reduce the work to the small est possible limits, and still cover the ground. It has been a little over fifty years since the or- ganization of the Territory which, at its birth, was a very small and unimportant creation, but which, in its half century of growth, has expanded into one of the most brilliant and promising stars upon the union of our flag; so that its history must cover every subject, moral, physical and social, that enters into the composition of a first-class progressive West ern State, which presents a pretty extensive field; but there is also to be considered a pe- riod anterior to civilization, which may be called the aboriginal and legendary era. which abounds with interesting matter, and to the general render is much more attractive than the prosy subjects of agriculture, finance and commerce.

Having lived through nearly the whole pe- riod of Minnesota's political existence, and hnving taken part in most of the leading events in her history, both savage and civilized, I pro pose to treat the various subjects that compose her history in a narrative and colloquial man nor that may not rise to the dignity of history, but T think, while giving facts, will not detract

from the interest or pleasure of the reader; if I should, in the course of my narrative, so far forget myself as to indulge iu a joke, or relate an illustrative auecdote, the reader must put up with it.

Nature has been lavishly generous with Min- nesota, more so perhaps than with any State in the Union. Its surface is beautifully diversified between rolling prairies and immense forests of valuable timber. Rivers and lakes abound and the soil is marvelous in its productive fer- tility. Its climate, taken the year round, sur- passes that of any part of the North American Continent. There are more enjoyable days in the three hundred and sixty-five that compose the year than in any other country I have ever visited or resided in, and that embraces a good part of the world's surface. The salubrity or Minnesota is phenomenal; there are absolute- ly no diseases indigenous to the State; the universally accepted truth of this fact is found in a saying which used to be general among the old settlers, that "there is no excuse for any one dying in Minnesota, and that only two men ever did die there, one of whom was hanged for killing the other."

The resource* of Miunesota principally con- sist of the products of the farm, the mine, the dairy, the quarry and the forest, and its indus- tries of a vast variety of manufactures of all kinds and characters, both great and small, the leading ones being flour aud lumber, to which, of course, must !>o added the enormous carrying trade which grows out of and is nec- essary to the successful conduct of such re- sources and industries; all of which subjects

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niRTORY OF MINNESOTA.

will be treated of iu their appropriate places.

With these prefatory suggestions I will pro- ceed with the history.

LEGENDARY AND ABORIGINAL ERA.

There is no doubt that Louis Hennepin, a Franciscan priest of the Recollect order, was the first white man who ever entered the pres- ent boundaries of Minnesota. He was with LaWalle at Fort Oreve t'oeur. near Lake l*eo- ria, in what is now Illinois, in 1(>.S0. LaSalle was the superior of the exploring party of which young Hennepin was a member, and in February, 1680, he selected Hennepin and two traders for the arduous and dangerous under- taking of exploring the unknown regions of the upper Mississippi. Hennepin was very am- bitious to become a great explorer, and was filled with the idea that by following the water courses he would find a passage to the sea and Japan.

On the 2!)th of February, 1G80, he, with two voyageurs in a canoe, set out ou his voyage of discovery. When he reached the junction of the Illinois river with the Mississippi, in March, he was detained by floating ice until near the middle of that month. He then com- menced to ascend the Mississippi, which was the first time it was ever attempted by a civ- ilized man. On the 11th of April they were met by a large war party of Dakotas, which filled thirty-three canoes, who opened fire on them with arrows, but hostilities were soon stopped, and Hennepin and his party were taken prisoners and made to return with their captors to their villages.

Hennepin, in his narrative, tells a long story of the difficulties he encountered in saying his prayers, as the Indians thought he was work ing some magic on them, and they followed him into the woods and never let him out of their sight. Judgiug from many things that up pear in his narrative, which have created great doubt about his veracity, it probably would not have been very much of a hardship if he had failed altogether in the performance of this

pious duty. Many of the Indians who had lost friends and relatives in their fights with the Miamis were in favor of killing the white men, but better counsels prevailed, and they were spared. The hope of opening up a trade inter- course with the French largely entered into the decision.

While traveling up the river one of the white men shot a wild turkey with his gun, which produced a great sensation among the Indians, and was the first time a Dakota ever heard the discharge of firearms. They called the gun Maza wakan, or spirit iron.

Tlie party camped at Lake Fepin, and on the nineteenth day of their captivity they arrived in the vicinity of where St. Paul now stands. From this point they proceeded by land to Mille Lacs, where they were taken by the In- dians to their several villages, and were kindly treated. These Indians were part of the baud of Dakotas, called M'de wa kon ton-wans, or the Lake Villagers. (I spell the Indian names as they are now known, and not as they are given in Hennepin's narrative, although it is quite remarkable how well he preserved them with sound as his only guide.)

While at this village the Indians gave Heu- nepin some steam baths, which he says were very effective iu removing all traces of sore- ness and fatigue, aud iu a short time made him feel as well and strong as he ever was. I have often witnessed this medical process among the Dakotas. They make a small lodge of poles covered with a buffalo skin or something sim- ilar, and place in it several large boulders heated to a high degree. The patient then en- ters naked, and pours water over the stones, producing a dense steam, which envelops him aud nearly boils him. He stands it as long as he can, and then undergoes a thorough rub- bing. The effect is to remove stiffness and soreness produced by long journeys on foot or cither serious labor.

Hennepin tells in a very agreeable way many things that occurred during his captivity; how astonished the Indians were at all the articles he had. A mariner's compass created much wonder, and an iron pot with feet like lions' paws they would not touch with the naked

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HISTORY OF MINNESOTA.

0

hand; but their astouishment knew no bounds when he told them that the whites only al- lowed a man one wife, and that his religious office did not permit him to have any.

I might say here that the Dakotas are polygamous, as savage people generally are, and that my experience proves to me that mis- sionaries who go among these people make a great mistake in attacking this institution un- til after they have ingratiated themselves with them, and then by attempting any reform be- yond teaching monogamy in the future. Noth- ing will assure the enmity of a savage more than to ask him to discard nny of his wives, and especially the mother of his children. While I would be the last man on earth to ad- vocate polygamy, I can truthfully say that one of the happiest and most harmonious families I ever knew was that of the celebrated Little Crow, who. during nil my official residence among the Dakotas. was my principal advisor and ambassador, and who led the massacre in 1862. He had four wives, but there was a point in his favor they were all sisters.

Hennepin passed the time he spent in Min- nesota in baptizing Indian babies and picking up all the information he could find. His prin- cipal exploit was the naming of the Palls of St. Anthony, which he called after his patron saint "Saint Anthony of Padua."

That Hennepin was thoroughly convinced that there was a northern passage to the sea which conld be reached by ships is proven by the following extract from his work: "For ex- ample, we may be transported into the Pacific sea by rivers, which are large and capable of carrying great vessels, and from thence it is very easy to go to China and Japan without crossing the equinoctial line, and in all proba- bility Japan is on the same continent as Amer- ica."

Our first visitor evidently had very confused ideas on matters of geography. The first ac- count of his adventures was published by him in 1683, and was qnite trustworthy, and it is much to be regretted that he was afterwards induced to publish another edition in Utrecht, in 16S9, which was filled with falsehoods and exaggerations, which brought upon him tbe

censure of the king of France. He died in ob- scurity, unregretted. The county of Hennepin is named for him.

Other Frenchmen visited Minnesota shortly after Hennepin for the purpose of trade with the Tndinns and the extension of the Territory of New France. In 1689 Nicholas Perot was established at Lake Pepin with quite a large body of men, engaged in trade with the In- dians. On the 8th of May, 1689, Perot issued a proclamation from his post on Lake Pepin, in which he formally took possession in the name of the king of all the countries inhab- ited by the Dakotas "and of which they are proprietors." This post was the first French establishment in Minnesota. It was called Fort Hon Seeours; afterwards Fort Le Sueur, but on later maps Fort Perot.

In 1695 Le Sueur built the secoud post in Minnesota between the head of Lake Pepin and the month of the St. Croix. In July of that year he took a party of Ojibways and one Dakota to Montreal for the purpose of impressing upon them the importance and strength of France. Here large bodies of troops were maneuvered in their presence and many speeches made by both the French and the Indians. Friendly and commercial relations were established.

Le Sueur, some time after, returned to Min- nesota and explored St. Peter's river (now the Minnesota) as far as the mouth of the Mae Earth. Here he built a log fort and called It L'Hullier, and made some excavations in search of copper ore. He sent several tons of a green substance which he found and sup- posed to be copper, to France, but it was un- doubtedly n colored clay that is found in that region, and is sometimes used as a rough paint. He is supposed to be the first man who sup- plied the Indians with guns. Le Sueur kept a journal in which he gave the best description of the Dakotas written in those early times, and was a very reliable man. Minnesota has a county and a city named for him.

Many other Frenchmen visited Minnesota in early days, among whom was Du Luth,.but as they were simply traders, explorers and priests among the Indians it is hardly necessary in a work of this character to trace their exploits

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[0

I11ST0RY OF MINNESOTA.

Id detail While they blazed the trail for oth- ers they did not, to any great extent, influence the future of the country, except by supplying a convenient nomenclature with which To designate localities, which has largely been drawn upon. Many of theui, however, were good and devoted men, and earnest in their en- deavors to epread the gospel among the In- dians; how well they succeeded I will discuss when I speak of these savage men more par- ticularly.

The next arrival of sufficient importance to particularize was Jonathan Carver. He was born in Connecticut in 1732. His father was a justice of the peace, which in those days was a more important position than it is how re- garded. They tried to make a doctor of him, and he studied medicine just long enough to discover that the profession was uncongenial and abandoned it. At the age of eighteen he purchased an ensign's commission in a Connec- ticut regiment, raised during the French war. He came very near losing his life at the mas sacre of Fort William Henry, but escaped, and after the declaration of peace between France and England, in 1763, he conceived the project of making an exploration of the Northwest.

It should be remembered that the French sovereignty over the Northwest ceased in 1703, when, by a treaty made in-Versailles, between the French and the English, all the lands em- braced in what is now Minnesota were ceded by the French to England, so Carver came as an Englishman into English territory.

Carver left Boston in the month of Juno, 176G, and proceeded to Mackinaw, then the most distant British post, where he arrived in the month of August. He then took the usual route to Green bay. He proceeded by the way of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers to the Missis- sippi. He found a considerable town on the Mississippi near the mouth of the Wisconsin, called by the French "La Prairie les Chicns," which is now Prairie du Chien, or the Dog Frairie, named after an Indian chief who went by the dignified name of "The Dog." He speaks of this town as one where a great central fur trade was carried on by the Indians. From this point he commenced his voyage up the

Mississippi in a canoe, and when he reached Lake Pepin he claims to have discovered a sys- tem of earthworks which he describes as of the most scientific military construction, and in- ferred that they had been at some time the intrenchment8 of a people well versed in th«; arts of war. It takes very little to excite an enthusiastic imagination into the belief that it has found what it has been looking for.

He found a cave in what is now known as Dayton's Bluff, and describes it as Immense in extent and covered with Indian hieroglyphics, and speaks of a burying place at a little dis tance from the cavern, and made a short voy- age up the Minnesota river, which he says tin- Indians called "Wadapaw Mennesotor." This probably is as near as he could catch the name by sound; it should be Wak-pa Minnesota.

After his voyage to the Falls and up the Min- nesota he returned to his cave, where he says there were assembled a great council of In dians, to which he was admitted, and witnessed the burial ceremonies, which he describes as follows:

"After the breath is departed the body is dressed in the same attire it usually wore, his face is painted, and he is seated in an erect posture on a mat or skin placed in the middle of the hut with his weapons by his side. His relatives seated around, each harangues the deceased; and, if he has been a great war- rior, recounts his heroic actions nearly to the following purport, which, in the Indian lan- guage, is extremely poetical and pleasing: 'You still sit among us, brother; your per- son retains its usual resemblance and continues similar to ours, without any visible deficiency except it has lost the power of action. But whither is that breath flown which a few hours ago sent up smoke to the Great Spirit? Why arc those lips silent that lately delivered to us expressions and pleasing language? Why arc those feet motionless that a short time ago were fleeter than the deer on yonder mountains? Why useless hang those arms that could climb the tallest tree or draw the toughest bow? Alas! Every part of that frame which we late- ly beheld with admiration and wonder is now become as inanimate as it was three hundred years ago! We will not, however, bemoan thee as if thou wast forever lost to us, or that thy name would be buried in oblivion. Thy soul yet lives in the great country of spirits

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HISTORY OF

with thoBe of thj nation that have gone before thee; and though we are left behind to perpet- uate thy fame, we Bhnll one day join thee.

Actuated by the respect we bore thee whilst living, we now come to tender thee the last act of kindness in our power; that thy body might not lie neglected on the plain and become a prey to the beasts of the field and the birds of the air, we will take care to lay it with those of thy ancestors who have gone before thee, hoping at the same time that thy spirit will feed with their spirits, and be ready to receive ours when we shall also arrive at the great country of souls.' "

I have heard many speeches made by the descendants of these same Indians, and have many times addressed them on all manner of subjects, but I never heard anything quite so elegant as the oration put into their months by Carver. I have always discovered that a good interpreter makes a good speech. On one occasion, when a delegation of Pillager Chip- pewas was in Washington to settle some mat- ters with the government, they wanted a cer- tain concession which the Indian commissioner would not allow, and they appealed to the President, who was then Franklin Pierce. Old Flatmouth, the chief, presented the case. Paul Beaulieu interpreted it bo feelingly that the President surrendered without a contest. After informing him as to the disputed point, he added:

"Father, you are great and powerful; you live in a beautiful home where the bleak winds never penetrate. Your hunger is always ap peased with the choicest foods. Your heart \h kept warm by all these blessings, and would bleed at the sight of distress among your red children. Father, we are poor and weak; we live far away in the cheerless north in bark lodges; we are often cold and hungry. Father, what we ask is to you as nothing, while to us it is comfort and happiness. Give it to us, and when you stand upon your grand portico some bright winter night and see the northern lights dancing in the heavens it will be the thanks of your red children ascending to the Great Spirit for your goodness to them."

Carver seems to have been a sagacious ob- server and a man of great foresight. In speak ing of the advantages of the country, he MiyR

MINNESOTA. 1 1

that the future population will be "able to convey their produce to the seaports with great facility, the current of the river from its source to its en tin nee into the Gulf of Mexico being extremely favorable for doing this in small craft. This might also in time be facili tated by canals or short cuts and a communi- cation opened with New York by way of the lakes." He was also impressed with the idea that a route could be discovered by way of the Minnesota river, which "would open a passage for conveying intelligence to China and the English settlements in the East Indies."

The nearest to a realization of this theory that I have known was the sending of the stern wheeled steamer "Freighter" on a voyage up the Minnesota to Winnipeg some time in the early fifties. She took freight and passengers for that destination, but never reached the Red River of the North.

After the death of Carver his heirs claimed that while at the great cave, May 1, 1767, the Indians made him a large grant of land, which would cover St Paul and a large part of Wis- consin, and several attempts were made to have it ratified by both the British and Amer- ican governments, but without success. Carver does not mention this grant in his book, nor has the original deed ever been found. A copy, however, was produced, and as it was the first real estate transaction that ever occurred in Minnesota I will set it out in full:

"To Jonathan Carver, a Chief under the Most Mighty and potent, George the Third, King of the English and other nations, the fame of whose warriors has reached onr cars, and has been fully told us by our good brother Jona- than aforesaid, whom we all rejoice to have come among us and bring us good news from his country:

WE, Chiefs of the Nandowcssies, who have hereunto set our seals, do, by these presents, for ourselves and heirs forever, in return for the aid and good services done by the said Jon- athan to ourselves and allies, give, grant and convey to him, the said Jonathan, and to his heirs and assigns forever, the whole of a cer- tain Territory or tract of land, bounded as fol lows, viz: From the Falls of St. Anthony, run- ning on east bank of the Mississippi, nearly southeast as far as Lake Pepin, where the

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HISTORY OP MINNESOTA.

Chippewa joins the Mississippi, and from thence eastward, five days' travel accounting twenty English miles per day, and from thence again to the Falls of St Anthony on a direct straight line. We do for ourselves, heirs and assigns, forever give unto said Jonathan, his heirs and assigns, with all the trees, rocks and rivers therein, reserving the sole liberty of hunting and fishing on land not planted or im- proved by the said Jonathan, his heirs and as- signs, to which we have affixed our respective seals.

At the Great Cave, May 1st, 1767.

(Signed) Hawnopawjatin.

Otohtongooulisheaw."

This alleged instrument bears upon its face muny marks of suspicion and was very prop erly rejected by General Leavenworth, who, in 1821, made a report of his investigations in re gard to it to the commissioner of the general land office.

The war between the Chippewas and the Dakotas continued to rage with varied success, as it has since time immemorial. It was a bitter, cruel war, waged against the race and blood, and each successive slaughter only in- creased the hatred and heaped fuel upon the fire. As an Indian never forgives the killing of a relative, and as the particular murderer, as a general thing, was not known on either side, each death was charged up to the tribe. These wars, although constant, had very little influ- ence on the standing or progress of the coun try, except so far as they may have proved detrimental or beneficial to the fur trade pros- ecuted by the whites. The first event after the appearance of Jonathan Carver that can be considered as materially affecting the history of Minnesota was the location and erection of Fort Snelllng, of which event I will give a brief account.

FORT 8NELLING.

In 1805 the government decided to procure a site on which to build a fort, somewhere on the waters of the upper Mississippi, and sent Lieut. Zebubon Montgomery Tike, or the army, to explore the country, expel British traders.

who might be violating the laws of the United States, and to make treaties with the Indians.

September 21, 1805, he encamped on what is now known as Pike island, at the junction of the Mississippi and Minnesota, then St. Pe- ter's river. Two days later he obtained, by treaty with the Dakota nation, a tract of land for a military reservation with the following boundaries, extending from "below the con- fluence of the Mississippi and St. Peters' up the Mississippi to include the Falls of St. Anthony, extending nine miles on each side of the river." The United States paid two thousand dollars for this land.

The reserve thus purchased was not used for military purposes until February 10, 1819, at which time the government gave the following reasons for erecting a fort at this point: "To cause the power of the United States Govern- ment to be fully acknowledged by the Indians and settlers of the Northwest ; to prevent Lord Selkirk, the Hudson Bay Company and others, from establishing trading posts on United States territory ; to better the condition of the Indians, and to develop the resources of the country." Part of the Fifth United States In- fantry, commanded by Col. Henry Leaven- worth, was dispatched to select a site and erect a post. They arrived at the St. Peters' river in September, 1819, and camped on or near the spot where now stands Mcndota. During the winter of 1819-20 the troops were terribly af- flicted with scurvy. Gen. Sibley, in an address before the Minnesota Historical Society, in speaking of it, says: "So sudden was the at- tack that soldiers apparently in good health when they retired at night were found dead in the morning. One man was relieved from his tour of sentinel duty and had stretched him- self upon a bench; when he was called four hours later to resume his duties he was found lifeless."

In May, 1820, the command left their cau tonment, crossed the St. Peters' and went into summer camp at a spring near the old Baker trading house, and nhout two miles above the present site of Fort Knelling. This was called "Camp Coldwater." During the summer the men were busy in procuring logs and other

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material necessary for the work. The first site selected was where the present military ceme- tery stands, and the post was called "Fort St. Anthony"; but in August, 1820, Col. Joshua Snelling of the Fifth United Stales Infantry arrived, and, on taking command, changed the site to where Fort Snelling now stands. Work steadily progressed until September 10, 1820, when the cornerstone of Fort St. Anthony was laid with all due ceremony. The first meas- ured distance that was given between this new post and the next one down the river, Fort Crawford, where Prairie du Chien now stands, was 204 miles. The work waB steadily pushed forward. The buildings were made of logs, and were first occupied in October, 1822.

The first steamboat to arrive at the post was the "Virginia," in 1823. The first saw mill in Minnesota was constructed by the troops in 1822, and the first lumber sawed on Rum river was for use in building the post The mill-site is now included within the corporate limits of Minneapolis.

The post continued to be called Fort St. An- thony until 1824, when, upon the recommenda- tion of General Scott, who inspected the Fort, it was named Fort Snelling, in honor of its founder. In 1830, stone buildings were erected for a four company post; also a stone hospital and a stone wall, nine feet high, surrounding the whole post, but these improvements were not actually completed until after the Mexican War.

The Indian title to the military reservation does not seem to have been effectuallyacquired, notwithstanding the treaty of Lieutenant Pike made with the Indians in 1805, until the treaty with the Dakotas, in 1837, by which the Indian claim to all the lands east of the Mississippi, in- cluding the reservation, ceased. In 1830, be- fore the Indian title was finally acquired, quite a number of settlers locnted on the reservation on the left bank of the Mississippi.

October 21, 1830, the President issued an order for their removal, and on May 0, 1H40, some of the settlers were forcibly removed.

In~1837 Mr. Alexander Faribault presented a Halm for Pike island, which was based upon a treaty made by him with the Dakotas in 1820.

Whether his claim was allowed, the records do not